Preaxial polydactyly is a common limb malformation in humans with variable clinical expression. Different types of triphalangeal thumb-preaxial polydactyly phenotypes were mapped to the chromosome 7q36 region. We studied a large Turkish family of 69 individuals, of whom 22 individuals were affected. In all, 11 affected family members were clinically and radiologically evaluated. All affected individuals had a triphalangeal thumb and a preaxial (hypoplastic) extra digit bilaterally, with minimal intrafamilial variation. No feet involvement was observed. Linkage and haplotype analyses using 20 informative meioses confirmed the 7q36 region contained the LIMBR1 gene. Maximum logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores were obtained with DNA markers D7S550 and D7S2423. We have further identified a novel C to T alteration at position 4909 bp in the critical zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) region, in the intron 5, of the LMBR1 gene. One affected male with homozygous status and no phenotypic difference from affected family members with heterozygous status represented the first homozygote case of the triphalangeal thumb-preaxial polydactyly phenotype.