Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the kidneys is a pathogenetic factor in patients with primary hypertension. This study aimed to determine the relationship between local kidney RAS activity and blood pressure variability, as the literature currently lacks any such study. The study included 73 consecutive primary hypertensive patients. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to determine the average real variability (ARV) index, as an indicator of blood pressure variability. Local RAS activity was determined using the urine angiotensinogen/creatinine (UAGT/UCre) ratio. The high UAGT/UCre ratio group had significantly higher mean 24-h systolic ARV than the low UAGT/UCre ratio group (13.2 +/- 3.4 vs 11.0 +/- 2.6, P = 0.003). Similarly, the high UAGT/UCre ratio group had significantly higher mean 24-h diastolic ARV than the low UAGT/UCre ratio group (10.8 +/- 3.2 vs 8.7 +/- 2.2, P = 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that Log(UAGT/UCre) was an independent predictor of both 24-h diastolic ARV and 24-h systolic ARV. Local RAS activity in the kidneys might have a role in blood pressure variability. On the basis of these findings, we think that additional prospective studies are needed to more fully discern the effect of local RAS activity on blood pressure variability.