Immunomodulatory properties of triterpenes


RENDA G., GÖKKAYA İ., ŞÖHRETOĞLU D.

PHYTOCHEMISTRY REVIEWS, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11101-021-09785-x
  • Journal Name: PHYTOCHEMISTRY REVIEWS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Terpenoids, Natural product, Immunostimulation, Immunosuppression, Immunoregulation, NF-KAPPA-B, INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS, INDUCED AIRWAY INFLAMMATION, FACTOR-ALPHA PRODUCTION, NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE, URSOLIC ACID, OLEANOLIC ACID, BETULINIC ACID, ASTRAGALOSIDE-IV, BOSWELLIC ACIDS

Abstract

The immune system is one of the main defence mechanisms of the human body. Inadequacy of this system or immunodeficiency results in increased risk of infections and tumours, whereas over-activation of the immune system causes allergic or autoimmune disorders. A well-balanced immune system is important for protection and for alleviation of these diseases. There is a growing interest to maintain a well-balanced immune system, especially after the Covid-19 pandemic. Many biological extracts, as well as natural products, have become popular due to their wide array of immunomodulatory effects and influence on the immune system. Triterpenes, one of the secondary metabolite groups of medicinal plants, exhibit immunomodulatory properties by various mechanisms. Different triterpenes, including components of commonly consumed plants, can promote some protection and alleviation of disease symptoms linked with immune responses and thus enhance overall well-being. This review aims to highlight the efficacy of triterpenes in light of the available literature evidence regarding the immunomodulatory properties of triterpenes. We have reviewed widely investigated immunomodulatory triterpenes; oleanolic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, pristimerin, ursolic acid, boswellic acid, celastrol, lupeol, betulin, betulinic acid, ganoderic acid, cucumarioside, and astragalosides which have important immunoregulatory properties. In spite of many preclinical and clinical trials were conducted on triterpenes related to their immunoregulatory actions, current studies have several limitations. Therefore, especially more clinical studies with optimal design is essential.