It is well known that peritoneal tuberculosis may mimic advanced-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma because of similar clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings. However, disseminated peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking advanced-stage endodermal sinus tumor (ESS) has not been reported previously. An 18-year-old nulliparous woman came with the complaint of pelvic pain and weight loss. Imaging studies demonstrated that she had multiple peritoneal implants and left adnexial mass. Also, laboratory studies showed elevated CA125 and alpha fetoprotein levels suggesting an initial diagnosis of ESS. However, intraoperative frozen section examination showed caseous necrosis, and she was diagnosed as having disseminated peritoneal tuberculosis. Two months after the initial exploration, the patient required liver transplantation because of hepatic failure due to widespread hepatic involvement of the tuberculosis. Concomitant peritoneal and hepatic involvement of tuberculosis may cause false elevation of multiple tumor markers of gynecological cancers and may lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients. Elevation of these markers should be carefully investigated especially in premenopausal women. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of peritoneal tuberculosis misdiagnosed as endodermal sinus tumor.