Carboxymethyl chitosan-glycerol multi-aldehyde based self-healing hydrogel system


International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol.239, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 239
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.124334
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Carboxymethylation, Chitosan, Schiff-base, Self-healing hydrogel
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The superiority of self-healing hydrogel systems with dynamic covalent chemistry is the ability to establish the gel network structure despite changes in ambient conditions such as pH, temperature, and ion concentrations. The Schiff base reaction, which occurs through aldehyde and amine groups, allows dynamic covalent bonds at physiological pH and temperature. In this study, gelation kinetics between glycerol multi-aldehyde (GMA) and water-soluble form of chitosan, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), has been investigated, and the self-healing ability has been evaluated in detail. Macroscopic and electron microscope-based visual inspection and rheological tests showed that the hydrogels exhibit the highest self-healing capacity at 3–4 % CMCS and 0.5–1 % GMA concentrations. Hydrogel samples were subjected to alternating high and low strains to deteriorate and rebuild the elastic network structure. The results showed that hydrogels could restore their physical integrity after applying 200 % strains. In addition, direct cell encapsulation and double staining tests showed that the samples do not possess any acute cytotoxicity on mammalian cells; hence, hydrogels could potentially be used in tissue engineering applications for soft tissues.