The Effects of Cooling Therapies on Fatigue, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis A Meta-Analysis


REHABILITATION NURSING, vol.47, no.6, pp.228-236, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/rnj.0000000000000388
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.228-236
  • Keywords: Cooling, meta-analysis, multiple sclerosis, thermosensitive, EXERCISE, HEAT, PERFORMANCE, PEOPLE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose This meta-analysis examined the effects of the cooling therapies on fatigue, physical activity, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods Articles published between 2000 and 2020 were searched in six databases. The standardized mean differences were determined by the upper and lower limits of 95% confidence intervals. Publication bias was assessed by conducting the Egger test, which uses linear regression. Publication bias was examined visually using a funnel plot. Results Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. The types of cooling therapies included cooling garment (n = 4), cooling device (n = 2), cooling room (n = 1), precooling (n = 1), and cold water ingestion (n = 1). The results indicated a significant decrease in fatigue and an increase in physical activity following cooling therapy. Cooling therapies improved the QoL of patients with MS. The Egger test indicated no significant publication bias. However, the funnel plot presented a slight asymmetry among studies.