Background and Purpose-Reperfusion is the most significant determinant of good outcome after ischemic stroke. However, complete reperfusion often cannot be achieved, despite satisfactory recanalization. We hypothesized that microvascular protection was essential for achieving effective reperfusion and, hence, neuroprotection. To test this hypothesis, we have developed an in vivo model to differentially monitor parenchymal and vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. By comparing the ROS-suppressing effect of N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) with its blood-brain barrier impermeable analog 2-sulfo-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (S-PBN), we assessed the impact of vascular ROS suppression alone on reperfusion and stroke outcome after recanalization.