Machine learning-based clinical decision support using laboratory data

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Çubukçu H. C., Topcu D. I., Yenice S.

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol.62, no.5, pp.793-823, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 62 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/cclm-2023-1037
  • Journal Name: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.793-823
  • Keywords: clinical laboratory, data, decision support, machine learning, total testing process
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: No


Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) are becoming vital in laboratory medicine and the broader context of healthcare. In this review article, we summarized the development of ML models and how they contribute to clinical laboratory workflow and improve patient outcomes. The process of ML model development involves data collection, data cleansing, feature engineering, model development, and optimization. These models, once finalized, are subjected to thorough performance assessments and validations. Recently, due to the complexity inherent in model development, automated ML tools were also introduced to streamline the process, enabling non-experts to create models. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) use ML techniques on large datasets to aid healthcare professionals in test result interpretation. They are revolutionizing laboratory medicine, enabling labs to work more efficiently with less human supervision across pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases. Despite contributions of the ML tools at all analytical phases, their integration presents challenges like potential model uncertainties, black-box algorithms, and deskilling of professionals. Additionally, acquiring diverse datasets is hard, and models' complexity can limit clinical use. In conclusion, ML-based CDSS in healthcare can greatly enhance clinical decision-making. However, successful adoption demands collaboration among professionals and stakeholders, utilizing hybrid intelligence, external validation, and performance assessments.