Functional substrate mapping of atrium in patients with atrial scar: A novel method to predict critical isthmus of atrial tachycardia


PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/pace.14981
  • Journal Name: PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, SportDiscus
  • Keywords: ablation, clinical, electrocardiogram, electrophysiology, SVT
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Atrial tachycardia (AT) is a common rhythm disorder, especially in patients with atrial structural abnormalities. Although voltage mapping can provide a general picture of structural alterations which are mainly secondary to prior ablations, surgery or pressure/volume overload, data is scarce regarding the functional characteristics of low voltage regions in the atrium to predict critical isthmus of ATs. Recently, functional substrate mapping (FSM) emerged as a potential tool to evaluate the functionality of structurally altered regions in the atrium to predict critical sites of reentry. Current evidence suggested a clear association between deceleration zones of isochronal late activation mapping (ILAM) during sinus/paced rhythm and critical isthmus of reentry in patients with left AT. Therefore, these areas seem to be potential ablation targets even not detected during AT. Furthermore, abnormal conduction detected by ILAM may also have a role to identify the potential substrate and predict atrial fibrillation outcome after pulmonary vein isolation. Despite these promising findings, the utility of such an approach needs to be evaluated in large-scale comparative studies. In this review, we aimed to share our experience and review the current literature regarding the use of FSM during sinus/paced rhythm in the prediction of re-entrant ATs and discuss future implications and potential use in patients with atrial low-voltage areas.