Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is the most common thoracic venous anomaly and may be a component of the complex cardiac pathologies. While it is often asymptomatic, it can lead to significant problems such as arrhythmias and cyanosis. Besides, it can cause serious complications during vascular interventional procedures or the surgical treatment of cardiac anomalies (CA). The clinical significance of PLSVC depends on the drainage site and the accompanying CA. In this article, we will describe the epidemiology, embryology, and anatomic variations of PLSVC. Possible accompanying CA and heterotaxy spectrum will be reviewed with the help of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images. Radiological pitfalls, differential diagnoses, and the clinical importance of PLSVC will be highlighted.