Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a life-treating and iatrogenic complication of assisted reproductive technologies. In order to exclude the probability of OHSS, women with high risk should be identified and proper controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocol should be assigned. However, the improvement of approaches and strategies that also maintain high pregnancy rates are as important as preventing OHSS for both patients and the physicians. Otherwise, it is hard to introduce to the aforementioned protocol to the daily practice. In the current review, we aimed to summarize established risk factors which could be useful in order to identify high risk women. The procedures for prevention that has the least deleterious effect on pregnancy rates and treatment would be also discussed.