Background: This study aimed to determine the incidence of prostate cancer in Turkey in a population-based sample, and to determine clinical and pathological characteristics of the cases. Materials and Methods: All newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients were included in this national, multi-centered, prospective and non-interventional epidemiological registry study conducted in 12 cities representing the 12 regions of Turkey from July 2008 to June 2009. The population-based sample comprised 4,150 patients with a recent prostate cancer diagnosis. Results: Age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rate was 35 cases per 100,000 in Turkey. At the time of diagnosis, median age was 68, median PSA level was 10.0 ng/mL. Digital rectal examination was abnormal in 36.2% of 3,218 tested cases. Most patients had urologic complaints. The main diagnostic method was transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (87.8%). Gleason score was <= 6 in 49.1%, 7 in 27.8% and >7 in 20.6% of the cases. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PSA level and Gleason score (p=0.000). The majority of patients (54.4%) had clinical stage T1c. Conclusions: This is the first population-based national data of incidence with the histopathological characteristics of prostate cancer in Turkey. Prostate cancer remains an important public health concern in Turkey with continual increase in the incidence and significant burden on healthcare resources.