Most cases of physical abuse and neglect refer to pediatric emergency clinics, and these patients are diagnosed as only home accidents. Cases that cannot be diagnosed and managed correctly are again exposed to severe trauma and consequently, they may die. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical abuse and neglect in children younger than three years of age, admitted to the pediatric emergency department with the complaints of trauma, burn, drug poisoning and/or caustic ingestion. This prospective study included 132 patients who were admitted to the pediatric emergency department. Children were classified into three groups as "no abuse", "suspected abuse" and "abused" after being evaluated with a standard form. Additionally, suspected abuse and abused cases were evaluated once again by "The Team of Child Abuse and Neglect Evaluation, Research and Treatment" in Hacettepe University, Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital.