Background: Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria that can manipulate their hosts' reproduction causing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is a sperm-egg incompatibility resulting in embryonic death. Due to this sterilising effect on mosquitoes, Wolbachia are considered for vector control strategies. Important vectors for arboviruses, filarial nematodes and avian malaria, mosquitoes of Culex pipiens complex are suitable for Wolbachia-based vector control. They are infected with Wolbachia wPip strains belonging to five genetically distinct groups (wPip-I to V) within the Wolbachia B supergroup. CI properties of wPip strongly correlate with this genetic diversity: mosquitoes infected with wPip strains from a different wPip group are more likely to be incompatible with each other. Turkey is a critical spot for vector-borne diseases due to its unique geographical position as a natural bridge between Asia, Europe and Africa. However, general wPip diversity, distribution and CI patterns in natural Cx. pipiens (s.l.) populations in the region are unknown. In this study, we first identified wPip diversity in Turkish Cx. pipiens (s.l.) populations, by assigning them to one of the five groups within wPip (wPip-Ito V). We further investigated CI properties between different wPip strains from this region.