In this case study the aim is to examine the self-reflection processes (self-evaluation, causal attribution, emotional reactions and inferences) of novice mathematics teachers. The participants were six middle school (grades of 5-8) mathematics teachers who have less than five years teaching experience working in the Western and Central Anatolia Regions of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through the semi-structured interviews developed based on classroom observations. First, the instructional situations were determined by observing the mathematics lessons of the participants (approximately 10 hours for each participant). Afterwards, through semi-structured interviews, the participants were asked to reflect on these instructional situations. During the data analysis, first within case analyses were made, and the self-reflection of each teacher was described. Then by comparing the data obtained from six teachers, it was defined which self-reflection processes the novice mathematics teachers performed and to what extent they performed them. The findings suggest that the participants did not consider their teaching behaviors when they were asked to evaluate the lesson. They attributed the cause of the failure in their lessons to factors beyond their control (e.g., low involvement of parents, insufficient physical facilities of the school). In addition, it is observed that they were less likely to develop positive emotional responses for the observed lessons and were insufficient in taking adaptive decisions for their future lessons. These findings indicate the necessity of pre-service and in -service practices that will support newly recruited middle school mathematics teachers to gain much more comprehensive self-reflection skills.