Solid-Phase Optical Sensing Techniques for Sensitive Virus Detection

Seymour E., Ekiz Kanik F., DİKEN GÜR S., Bakhshpour-Yucel M., ARAZ A., Lortlar Ünlü N., ...More

Sensors, vol.23, no.11, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/s23115018
  • Journal Name: Sensors
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: solid-phase optical biosensors, virus diagnostics, fluorescence-based sensors, surface plasmon resonance, optical resonators, interferometric biosensors, single-virus detection
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Viral infections can pose a major threat to public health by causing serious illness, leading to pandemics, and burdening healthcare systems. The global spread of such infections causes disruptions to every aspect of life including business, education, and social life. Fast and accurate diagnosis of viral infections has significant implications for saving lives, preventing the spread of the diseases, and minimizing social and economic damages. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are commonly used to detect viruses in the clinic. However, PCR has several drawbacks, as highlighted during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, such as long processing times and the requirement for sophisticated laboratory instruments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for fast and accurate techniques for virus detection. For this purpose, a variety of biosensor systems are being developed to provide rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput viral diagnostic platforms, enabling quick diagnosis and efficient control of the virus’s spread. Optical devices, in particular, are of great interest due to their advantages such as high sensitivity and direct readout. The current review discusses solid-phase optical sensing techniques for virus detection, including fluorescence-based sensors, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), optical resonators, and interferometry-based platforms. Then, we focus on an interferometric biosensor developed by our group, the single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensor (SP-IRIS), which has the capability to visualize single nanoparticles, to demonstrate its application for digital virus detection.