Recent studies suggest that dysbiosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases gut-derived uremic toxins (GDUT) generation, leads to systemic inflammation, reactive oxygen species generation, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation on GDUT levels, inflammatory and antioxidant parameters, renal damage, and intestinal barrier function in adenine-induced CKD rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control group (CTL, n = 12) fed with standard diet; and CKD group (n = 16) given adenine (200 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 3-weeks to induce CKD. At the 4th week, CKD rats were subdivided into prebiotic supplementation (5g/kg/day) for four consecutive weeks (CKD-Pre, n = 8). Also, the control group was subdivided into two subgroups; prebiotic supplemented (CTL-Pre, n = 6) and non-supplemented group (CTL, n = 6). Results showed that prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation did not significantly reduce serum indoxyl sulfate (IS) but did significantly reduce serum p-Cresyl sulfate (PCS) (p = 0.002) in CKD rats. Prebiotic supplementation also reduced serum urea (p = 0.008) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels (p = 0.001), ameliorated renal injury, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p = 0.002) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p = 0.001) in renal tissues of CKD rats. No significant changes were observed in colonic epithelial tight junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin in the CKD-Pre group. In adenine-induced CKD rats, oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation resulted in a reduction in serum urea and PCS levels, enhancement of the antioxidant activity in the renal tissues, and retardation of the disease progression.