Teucrium montanum L. and T. polium L. are the two closest Teucrium L. species from sect. Polium (Mill.) Schreb in Turkey. In addition, they are sympatric for some part of their range in Turkey. In this study, comparative anatomical and micromorphological studies of the two species are carried out. They have been investigated by their leaf and stem anatomical features, as well as nutlet micromorphological characteristics. The results of anatomical studies show that the anatomical characters of both taxa are observed to be similar to the general features of the family Lamiaceae anatomy, except for lacking rich collenchyma at the corners. Both taxa are similar in stem anatomy and their leaves exhibit xeromorphy. However, trichome morphology on the stems and the leaves appear to have a taxonomic value in segregation of the two taxa. Light and scanning electron microscope studies on the nutlets also show that nutlet shapes, measures and surface micromorphologies are different in the two species. Whereas nutlet surfaces are bireticulate in both species, the nutlets are larger and primary sculpturing is more distinct in T. polium than in T. montanum. Moreover, the nutlets are oblong to oblong-ovoid and larger in T. polium, but ovoid and smaller in T. montanum.