Phosphorus recovery for circular Economy: Application potential of feasible resources and engineering processes in Europe

Zhu F., Cakmak E. K., Cetecioglu Z.

Chemical Engineering Journal, vol.454, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 454
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.cej.2022.140153
  • Journal Name: Chemical Engineering Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Phosphorus recovery, Europe, Legal framework, Engineering approaches, Benefits assessment
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: No


© 2022 The Author(s)Phosphorus (P), one of the essential and indispensable elements for the growth of living organisms, is finite and nonrenewable for a multitude of applications. Economic P recycling can contribute to sustainable P management and lessen the pressure on P imports of the EU. Several European countries now have paved the way for establishing P recovery legislation and successively implemented compulsory recycling from P-rich wastes. This paper provided a comprehensive review for analyzing the potential of existing P recycling resources and engineering technologies in terms of their feasibility and applicability in Europe. Potential P-rich flows from the waste streams and eutrophic environments were deeply investigated. Regarding their technical principles, application, and availability, different engineering approaches for P release enhancement and P recovery were also reviewed in a critical manner. Moreover, assessments on engineering applications for P recycling considering economic feasibility and environmental benefits were also presented. Wastewater treatment plants show promising recovery efficiency, whereas industrial processes with sludge ashes as input allow up to 95% recovery of P. Collectively, in Europe, efficient and sustainable management of P has been recognized as a necessary strategy to meet the growing demand for mineral P.