The health field is characterised by high uncertainties which can lead to large expenditures. One way to manage these uncertainties is to develop collectively-financed health care systems. Some countries create this collective financing through general taxes, whereas others rely on premiums set up through compulsory social health insurance. Turkey, a middle-income country, has historically used several mechanisms to extend health care to its population. However, inadequate financing and poor service quality have plagued this health care system.