We compared the in vitro activities of posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp., and explored the in vitro interaction between posaconazole and amphotericin B against Rhizopus spp. Clinical strains of 82 Aspergillus spp. (43 Aspergillus fumigatus, 29 A. flavus, 7 A. niger, 2 A. terreus, 1 A. nidulans) and 11 Rhizopus oryzae isolates were tested in accordance with CLSI M38-A microdilution guidelines. In vitro activity of posaconazole against Aspergillus spp. was also investigated with the Etest. The combination of posaconazole and amphotericin B against R. oryzae isolates was investigated by the checkerboard methodology. Voriconazole was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by posaconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B, in order of decreasing activity. In studies with R. oryzae isolates, posaconazole was found to be the most potent drug followed by itraconazole and amphotericin B. Voriconazole had no meaningful activity against Rhizopus. Posaconazole Etest MICs (g/ml) with Aspergillus spp. were found to be considerably lower than those obtained with the CLSI microdilution method (4-9 and 3-7 two-fold lower than CLSI MICs at 24 and 48 h, respectively). The interaction between posaconazole and amphotericin B was indifferent for all R. oryzae isolates tested; importantly no antagonism was observed.