We examined the effects of aromatherapy on agitation in patients with dementia and evaluated related caregiver burden. Patients and their caregivers from two hospitals in Turkey were selected and divided into an intervention group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 14). Patients were stratified according to their dementia phase and intake of antipsychotic medication. The intervention group received aromatherapy via massage and inhalation at home for 4 weeks. The control group received no intervention. Data were collected using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). At 2 and 4 weeks, the NPI scores were significantly lower in the intervention group (p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, the CMAI and ZBI scores were significantly lower in the intervention group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, after aromatherapy, agitation, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver distress significantly reduced, and aromatherapy prevented caregiver burden increase. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.