Objective: We investigated the importance of prophylactic administration of low-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in women with risk factors associated with placental inflammation. Materials and methods: This retrospective cohort study included 300 pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy (30 primigravidas and 270 multigravidas) who received prophylactic low-dose LMWH to prevent placental inflammation. Based on maternal risk factors, patients were categorized into 3 groups as follows: Group 1: Patients with metabolic risk factors for placental inflammation (n = 205), Group 2: Patients with immunological risk factors for placental inflammation (n = 42), Group 3: Patients with metabolic and immunological risk factors for placental inflammation (n = 53). Obstetric histories, demographic features, clinical characteristics, and present pregnancy outcomes were compared between groups. Live birth rates, composite adverse obstetric outcomes, and the Beksac obstetric index were compared between present and previous pregnancies in multigravidas. Results: Pregnancy outcomes were significantly better in the present pregnancy than in previous pregnancies. A significant increase was observed in live birth rates (33.4% vs. 69.9%, 27.5% vs. 60.5%, and 30.1% vs. 69.4% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and in the Beksac obstetric index (0.32 vs. 0.43, 0.33 vs. 0.47, and 0.38 vs. 0.57 in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively) (p < .001 for all). A significant decrease in composite adverse pregnancy outcome rates was observed during the present pregnancy (23.5% vs. 100%, 28.9% vs. 100%, and 24.5% vs. 100% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (p < .001 for all). Live birth and composite adverse obstetric outcome rates were 70% and 33.3%, respectively in primigravidas. Conclusion: Low-dose low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis is useful to prevent metabolic and immunological disorders causing placental inflammation, which is the most likely pathophysiological mechanism contributing to various obstetrical complications.