Sonoanatomy and Stepwise/Systematic Ultrasound Examination of the Extrinsic/Intrinsic Wrist Ligaments

Wang J., Wu W., Chang K., Chen L., Nakashima Y., ÖZÇAKAR L.

DIAGNOSTICS, vol.11, no.10, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/diagnostics11101834
  • Journal Name: DIAGNOSTICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: sonography, dynamic imaging, carpal, bone, sprain, ENTRAPMENT, DIAGNOSIS, ANATOMY, NERVE, JOINT, THUMB
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Ultrasound has emerged as the most useful imaging tool for investigating wrist and hand disorders, with several published ultrasound protocols having demonstrated their practicality in scanning the wrist tendons and nerves. However, ligaments of the wrist are networked in a complex manner, deterring sonographers from examining them with an organized strategy. Furthermore, because of the non-parallel alignment between the radiocarpal, mid-carpal, and carpal-metacarpal joints, precise recognition of the carpal bones is challenging, although ultrasound is paramount for visualizing the wrist ligaments. In this regard, the current article for point of view aims to elaborate sonoanatomy of the carpal bones and to present a stepwise systematic approach for navigating the extrinsic and intrinsic wrist ligaments.