Background: Coenzyme Q (CoQ) might be the main site of interaction with propofol on the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) because of the structural similarity between coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and propofol. Aim: To investigate the effects of CoQ10 on survival and organ injury in a PRIS model in rabbits. Methods: Sixteen male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 4 groups: (1) propofol infusion group, (2) propofol infusion and CoQ10, 100 mg/kg was administered intravenously, (3) sevoflurane inhalation was administered, and (4) sevoflurane inhalation and CoQ10, 100 mg/kg intravenously, was administered. Arterial blood gas and biochemical analyses were repeated every 2 h and every 12 h, respectively. Animals that were alive on the 24th hour after anesthesia induction were euthanized. The organ damages were investigated under light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The propofol infusion group had the highest troponin T levels when compared with the other three groups at the 12th hour. The propofol + CoQ10 group had lower troponin T levels when compared with the propofol and sevoflurane groups (P < 0.05). Administration of CoQ10 decreased total liver injury scores and total organ injury scores both in the propofol and sevoflurane groups. The propofol and sevoflurane organ toxicities were attenuated with CoQ10 in liver, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and spleen. Conclusion: The addition of CoQ10 to propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia prevented the propofol-associated increase in troponin T levels at the 12th hour of infusion and decreased anesthetic-induced total liver and organ injury scores.