Reversible addition - fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was applied to radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene from cellulose. The grafting of styrene from cellulose substrates using the chain transfer agent cumyl phenyldithioacetate was confirmed by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetery, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle analysis. Grafted polystyrene chains were cleaved from the cellulose surface by acidic hydrolysis of the cellulose. The number-average molecular weight and polydispersity index of the grafted and the free (nongrafted) polystyrenes obtained under identical conditions were determined by size exclusion chromatography. Grafted and nongrafted polystyrenes have almost the same (near theoretical) molecular weight and narrow polydispersity, thus proving for the first time the control of the grafting process mediated via RAFT without any prior functionalization of the surface.