Objective To evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and autoimmune antibody positivity. Method We evaluated Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears of 210 patients with poor obstetric history who were admitted to a special preconception counselling programme. Cytological specimens with various types of microorganisms except for BV, epithelial cell abnormalities and other non-neoplastic findings, including inflammation were excluded from the cohort in addition to patients with autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. The remaining study population (n = 121) was divided into two groups of patients with autoimmune antibody positivity (study group, n = 80) and patients without antibody positivity (control group, n = 41). Results The rate of BV was demonstrated to be 13.8% and 2.4% in the study and control groups respectively (P = .042). We also demonstrated that the anti-nuclear antibody was positive in 58.3% of the cases with BV. Conclusion BV was found more frequently in patients with autoimmune antibody positivity to a statistically significant degree.