We conducted this study to determine familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)-associated central nervous system involvement including demyelinating lesions, stroke, and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Patients with MEFV mutations were systematically reviewed through the Medical Biology Unit database. All samples sent for mutation analysis were screened for 10 common MEFV mutations. Patients with FMF and neurologic disorders according to the clinical records were invited for reevaluation. Lumbar puncture, electroencephalography, and evoked potentials were used to determine the type of neurologic involvement in selected cases. Electrocardiography, transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging and/or angiography were performed to clarify the etiology of cerebrovascular disease.