© 2021 The AuthorsSynchronous chemotherapy and radiotherapy, termed chemoradiation therapy, is now an important standard regime for synergistic cancer treatment. For such treatment, nanoparticles can serve as improved carriers of chemotherapeutics into tumors and as better radiosensitizers for localized radiotherapy. Herein, we designed a Schottky-type theranostic heterostructure, Bi2S3–Au, with deep level defects (DLDs) in Bi2S3 as a nano-radiosensitizer and CT imaging contrast agent which can generate reactive free radicals to initiate DNA damage within tumor cells under X-ray irradiation. Methotrexate (MTX) was conjugated onto the Bi2S3–Au nanoparticles as a chemotherapeutic agent showing enzymatic stimuli-responsive release behavior. The designed hybrid system also contained curcumin (CUR), which cannot only serve as a nutritional supplement for chemotherapy, but also can play an important role in the radioprotection of normal cells. Impressively, this combined one-dose chemoradiation therapeutic injection of co-drug loaded bimetallic multifunctional theranostic nanoparticles with a one-time clinical X-ray irradiation, completely eradicated tumors in mice after approximately 20 days after irradiation showing extremely effective anticancer efficacy which should be further studied for numerous anti-cancer applications.