Effects of window proximity on perceptions of employees in the call center offices

Yıldırım K., Özkan A., Gunes E., Mestan A.

FACILITIES, vol.38, no.7-8, pp.577-594, 2020 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 38 Issue: 7-8
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1108/f-11-2018-0145
  • Journal Name: FACILITIES
  • Page Numbers: pp.577-594
  • Keywords: User satisfaction, Educational level, Workspace, Call center, Window proximity, Workstation arrangement, INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL-QUALITY, OCCUPANT PRODUCTIVITY, COEFFICIENT ALPHA, SATISFACTION, NOISE, PERFORMANCE, BUILDINGS, PRIVACY, GENDER, WORK
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes




The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of window proximity on perceptions of employees in the call center offices.


A semantic differential scale composed of nine bipolar adjectives, four of which dealt with “planning,” three of “privacy,” while the rest measured “lighting” was applied for evaluation. In total, 92 employees at the TEPE Call Center in the Bilkent District, Ankara, Turkey participated in the research.


The results showed that window proximity directly affected the call center employees’ perceptions. In addition, a positive approach was even less affected when the location of the workstation was more at the inner part of the workspace. On the contrary, workstations in front of the window were evaluated more positively, presumably because the employees were happy at feeling roomy and by giving them a higher level of privacy, while also minimizing distractions and interruptions. It was also found that call center employees with secondary education responded more positively than higher educated employees.

Research limitations/implications

This study was limited to examining the effects of window proximity in a call center on employees’ perceptions of an open-plan office. The study supports the results of planning, privacy and lighting, as well as the study on physical environmental factors, such as design, ambient and social, which are thought to be realized in the future.


This study presents suggestions that would be useful for increasing the working and solution-focused perceptual performance values in call center environments from the new generation of work areas. They should be appropriate for the psychological and physical needs of employees in twenty-first-century communication environments, especially in spatial environments and for the suitability of the technological equipment used.