© 2022, Journal of Turkish Science Education. All Rights Reserved.Science education plays an important role at primary school level. Primary school teachers are the first to introduce science to students. Teaching-learning conceptions, attitudes and perceived self-efficacy of teachers towards science teaching are influential on pupils’ science learning. The aim of this study was to investigate primary student teachers’ (PSTs’) teaching-learning conceptions, attitudes, and self-efficacy beliefs toward science teaching. The sample consisted of 231 PSTs from a public university in Turkey. The Attitude toward Science Teaching Scale, Science Teaching Self-Efficacy Belief Instrument, and Teaching-Learning Conceptions Questionnaire were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation analysis were utilized for analyzing the data. Results revealed that PSTs exhibited a constructivist teaching-learning approach rather than a traditional teaching-learning approach. PSTs’ mean scores on science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward science teaching were found higher than the average. Females were more dominant than males in terms of the teaching-learning approach. Moreover, it was found out that the female’s science teaching self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy were higher than the males.