Objective To examine the effects of a home follow-up program in Turkey on care problems, anxiety, and depression levels of mothers after the birth of a premature baby. Methods A semi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group design. Eighty premature newborns and their mothers were included in the study. Nursing care was given to mothers and babies in the study group through a total of four home visits on weeks 1, 2, 3, and days 40-42 in Kirikkale, Turkey guided by the Nursing Diagnosis System and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) system of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). Data were collected from a sociodemographics form, home care needs evaluation form, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and State Anxiety Inventory. Results There were no significant differences between groups for nursing diagnoses at baseline, while the study group resulted in significantly fewer problems on days 40-42, compared to the control group. Mothers had a comparatively lower depression and state anxiety risk in the study group compared to the control group. Conclusions Providing home-based nursing care for preterm mothers and babies during the first 40-42 days has the potential to decrease postnatal care problems, including maternal depression and state anxiety levels.