Effects of Sprouting and Fermentation on Free Asparagine and Reducing Sugars in Wheat, Einkorn, Oat, Rye, Barley, and Buckwheat and on Acrylamide and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation during Heating


Yiltirak S., KOCADAĞLI T. , ÇELİK E. E. , KANMAZ E. Ö. , GÖKMEN V.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.69, no.32, pp.9419-9433, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 69 Issue: 32
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03316
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY
  • Page Numbers: pp.9419-9433
  • Keywords: acrylamide, asparagine, baker's yeast, germination, malting, sourdough fermentation, 5-(HYDROXYMETHYL)-2-FURALDEHYDE HMF, CEREAL PRODUCTS, BREAD DOUGH, FLOUR, VARIETY, YEAST, MODEL, ACID

Abstract

Usage of sprouted grains is an increasing trend in thermally processed foods. Sprouting alters the composition of sugars and amino acids, which are Maillard reaction precursors. Free asparagine, total free amino acids, and sugars were monitored during sprouting and yeast and sourdough fermentations. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were analyzed in heated samples. The asparagine concentration decreased up to 40% after 24-36 h of sprouting, except for buckwheat, and then increased to the initial concentration after 48 h and several folds after 72 h. The increased amount of reducing sugars after sprouting caused higher acrylamide and HMF formation even if the asparagine concentration was lower. Acrylamide and HMF formation decreased after fermentation of sprouted wholemeal because sugars and asparagine were consumed by yeast. A pH drop of 3 units by sourdough fermentation decreased acrylamide formation but increased HMF formation. Results indicated that sprouted cereal products should be produced under controlled conditions to be used in heated foods.