Command of Nihad (Anilmis) Pasha at El-cezire Front and the Question of his Trial


CTAD-CUMHURIYET TARIHI ARASTIRMALARI DERGISI, vol.14, no.28, pp.3-36, 2018 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 28
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Page Numbers: pp.3-36


El-cezire Front is the only front which has taken the longest period of time during the Turkish Independence War, that had the potential to conflict directly with the British Forces and where this potential has been realized occasionally. In addition to this military aspect, it has been a front that had such significant political targets as ensuring announcement by the people of the region that they already had the opportunity to determine their own fate and they were seeking to be represented in the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) when the Kurdish separation movements were prevented and the people would vote within the frame of self-determination principle. Nihad Pasha, who had been assigned to administer the Kurdish and Armenian upheavals in Dersim, Mus and Bitlis provinces and fought against the Bulgarian bandits in Macedonia when he was a young officer and who was familiar with the region and regional structure due to his posts in Diyarbakir vicinities, and in Syria region towards the end of World War One, was commissioned to this important post. During the course of 1,5 years when he remained in this post, he exercised the powers that were granted by the Assembly and the Government; applied unique methods; strengthened the army and established the State authority; managed to keep the Kurdish and Arab tribes and religious formations in El-cezire region to be on the part of the Ankara Government and managed to cooperate with the regional tribes and engage Great Britain on Mosul issue until the second stage of Lausanne Peace Negotiations on Mosul issue. However, he became the target of the criticisms by the regional parliamentary members in a short period of time for reason of his actions and activities. These criticisms were soon carried to the Grand National Assembly of Ankara Government and thereby the Ministers and the Government were sought to take their shares in these criticisms. When they were further intensified by time and the complaints from the regions increased, Mustafa Kemal discharged him from office by exercising his Supreme Military Command authority. He was acquitted in the military court where he was judged and this judgement was also approved by TGNA. Thereafter, he was appointed to the chairmanship position of the Military Court of Appeal where he has maintained this post for the next 20 years.