Millions of people require bone injury treatment and there have been many methods suggested for the stabilization of bone fractures. The need for the development of new methods is obvious since current stabilization methods are inadequate. Here, we described the development of polyurethane-based bone adhesives composites containing beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramics in different sizes and ratios. To characterize the proposed materials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry analyses together with scanning electron microscopy observations, and micro-computerized tomography imaging were examined. Furthermore, in vitro performance of the produced materials was tested by using MG63 human osteosarcoma cell line, and an ex vivo modeling study was conducted to test the mechanical performance of resulting materials using bovine rib bone. All materials were exhibited high porosity (above 90%) and homogeneous distribution of ceramic particles. Polyurethane scaffolds containing 40% (w/w) 1-2 mm beta-tricalcium phosphate were shown the highest compressive strength as 1.34 +/- 0.10 MPa. In addition, 85.75% cell viability was recorded according to the cytotoxicity analysis and also the cell proliferation was found highest in the same group. Taken into account the obtained results, the prepared polyurethane-based bone adhesive materials containing ceramics has a great potential to transform into a final product and meet a clinically significant medical need.