Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp., a phoretic associate of Halictus bees from Ankara, Turkey, is described and illustrated. Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp. is closest to B. kevini, which is phoretically associated with Halictus bees from the Pacific Northwest. Bursaphelenchus anatolius n. sp. and B. kevini appear to be sister taxa based upon several shared morphological features, similar life histories involving phoresy with soil-dwelling Halictus bees, and molecular analysis of the near-full-length small subunit rDNA, D2D3 expansion segments of the large subunit rDNA, and partial mitochondrial DNA COL Bursciphelenchus anatolius it. sp. can be differentiated from all other species of Bursaphelenchus based upon spicule morphology. The paired spicules are uniquely shaped and ventrally recurved, and both B. anatolius n. sp. and B. kevini possess extending flaps that open when the spicules are protracted beyond the cloaca. Population growth of B. anatolius n. sp. was measured at 23 degrees C in the laboratory on cultures of the fungus Monilinia fructicola grown on lactic acid-treated, 5% glycerol-supplemented potato dextrose agar. Nematode population densities rapidly increased from 110 to about 110,000/9-cm-diam. dish within 21 days.