Hydrothermal fluid circulation within the restless structural frame of Hasandağ volcanic system (Central Anatolia, Türkiye) inferred from Self-potential, CO2, and temperature measurements

DİKER C., ULUSOY İ., AKKAŞ E., ŞEN E., Aydın E., Gümüş E., ...More

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.446, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 446
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2023.107994
  • Journal Name: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, INSPEC, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Carbon dioxide, Hasan Dagi, Hydrothermal activity, Mount Hasan, Self-potential, Surface temperature
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Hasandağ is an active composite volcanic system located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). A comprehensive field survey was conducted to reveal the hydrothermal activity within the Hasandağ volcanic system, with particular emphasis on Self-Potential (SP) mapping. The Hasandağ system is characterised by the presence of twin stratovolcanoes that arise from pre-existing partially buried calderas. In conjunction with the SP measurements, carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) and surface temperature (ST) measurements were taken. The temperature measurements were elaborated with thermal infrared remote (TIR) sensing methods. The SP results, with a peak-to-peak magnitude of 3.8 Volts, revealed the presence of a significant hydrothermal input in both of the twin cones, characterised by a typical W-shaped anomaly commonly observed in active volcanoes. The highest SP signal coincides with the active fumarole zone at the western flank of G. Hasandağ summit, where we measured ∼70 °C vapour temperatures and relatively high CO2 output (>100,000 ppm). The SP/elevation (Ce) gradient assisted in revealing the hydrothermal and hydrogeological zonation, providing substantial evidence of the relationship between hydrothermal circulation and the structural frame of the volcano. Integrated evaluation of SP, CO2, and temperature data revealed the structural control on the hydrothermal and hydrogeological circulation, with the contribution of Hasandağ, Karacaören, and Karkın Faults as major structural components. The partially buried rim of the Hasandağ caldera was revealed through the detection of a ‘double Ce-low’ signal, providing valuable insights on the dimensions of the structure and its role in the hydrogeological cycle of the system. The extent and magnitude of the hydrothermal activity observed, the Holocene eruptive history of the volcano, and its proximity to populated areas denote the requirement of further geophysical and geochronological research and the necessity of hazard assessment and instrumental monitoring.