Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed by the majority of clinically significant prostate adenocarcinomas, and patients with target-positive disease can easily be identified by PSMA PET imaging. Promising results with PSMA-targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy have already been obtained in early-phase studies using various combinations of targeting molecules and radiolabels. Definitive evidence of the safety and efficacy of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 in combination with standard-of-care has been demonstrated in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, whose disease had progressed after or during at least one taxane regimen and at least one novel androgen-axis drug. Preliminary data suggest that 177Lu-PSMA-radioligand therapy (RLT) also has high potential in additional clinical situations. Hence, the radiopharmaceuticals [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-I&T are currently being evaluated in ongoing phase 3 trials. The purpose of this guideline is to assist nuclear medicine personnel, to select patients with highest potential to benefit from 177Lu-PSMA-RLT, to perform the procedure in accordance with current best practice, and to prepare for possible side effects and their clinical management. We also provide expert advice, to identify those clinical situations which may justify the off-label use of [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 or other emerging ligands on an individual patient basis.