Background: To evaluate the effect of povidone-iodine liposome hydrogel on colonic anastomosis. Methods: 70 Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into seven groups. The left colon was transected and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. PVP-I liposome hydrogel was applied around the anastomoses in groups 2 and 5. Colonic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were measured on postoperative days 3 and 7. Results: PVP-I application did not cause any difference in the bursting pressures on postoperative day 3, but anastomotic strength was significantly increased by the use of PVP-I on postoperative day 7. The use of PVP-I liposome hydrogel had no effect on the level of perianastomotic hydroxyproline on postoperative day 3 but had positive effects on postoperative day 7. Conclusions: We concluded that the beneficial effects of PVP-I liposome hydrogel might be due to the combination of broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of PVP-I with the drug delivery properties and moisturizing molecular film effects of the liposome hydrogel. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.