Purpose The purpose of this paper was to examine knowledge hiding behaviours with perceived conflict types, competition and personal values of employees. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were carried out and structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings Study I, with employees from software development companies, revealed that task conflict and relationship conflict have additive effect on knowledge hiding behaviour. Additionally, task conflict is positively related to employees' perceived competition. However, no mediation role of perceived competition was found between conflict types and knowledge hiding. Study II, with employees from the banking sector, indicated that employees' individualistic or collectivistic values play a moderating role between perceived task conflict and knowledge hiding behaviours. The negative effect of task conflict on knowledge hiding behaviour is higher if the individuals have individualistic personal values. Practical implications This study contributes to managers by offering some guidance on what can be the results of conflict and competition between employees and how employees' personal values can affect conflict and knowledge hiding relation. Originality/value To the challenges of knowledge hiding behaviour outcomes for businesses, many managers should first consider the predictors of knowledge hiding and then find some solutions against the negative consequences. This study is one of the first to examine knowledge hiding with regard to conflict types, perceived competition between employees and personal values of employees.