The interest of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) physicians in musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) is increasing. In this study, we aimed to explore the attitudes of a group of Italian physiatrists on this topic before and after a 2 1/2-day MSUS course. A 15-question survey (designed ad-hoc for this study) was administered before the first session of an MSUS course held in the PRM Department of Tor Vergata University, Rome. At the end of the course, a repeat questionnaire with eight of the original 15 questions (on awareness) was administered. The survey contained multiple-choice and open-ended questions addressing three main aspects: personal background, MSUS experience, and awareness about MSUS. All of the course participants (17 physiatrists) completed the precourse and postcourse questionnaires. Almost two-thirds of the participants (11/17) reported that they had never received education on MSUS. Overall, the participants rated MSUS as either 'essential' (8/16) or 'useful to some of my practice' (8/16). All of them stated at both times that physiatrists should perform MSUS themselves and that MSUS education is necessary for physiatrists. Participants' awareness significantly increased on the indications for MSUS, the advantages and the structures that could be evaluated with it. We draw attention to the fact that PRM physicians are increasingly becoming aware of the need for MSUS in clinical practice. Unfortunately, the two barriers (i.e. lack of education and lack of device) against the use of MSUS by physiatrists still seem to exist. Finally, we acknowledge the paramount role of international collaborative efforts (e. g. EURO-MUSCULUS) to speed up and standardize the education process and the clinical application of MSUS in our field. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 36:178-181 (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.