Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic disease, transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene prevalent among Turks, Armenians, Sephardic Jews and Arabs. FMF is manifested by short, self-limiting attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. Usually, patients also have attacks between menstruations. Infertility has been implicated by ovulatory dysfunction and peritoneal adhesions and reported in up to 30% of untreated women with FMF. A 34 year old woman presented to the emergency department with dysmenorrhea three times annually since 22 years of age. She had had infertility treatment for 3 years (three times in vitro fertilization therapy, which had not ended with pregnancy). We thought that this patient, who presented with painful perimenstrual attacks and who had infertility could have FMF.