Background Activation of peripheral and/or central trigeminovascular pain pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine. Small fibers mediate pain, thermal sensation, and autonomic functions. Axon flare response is correlated with local C-fiber activation and calcitonin gene-related peptide release. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) detects very subtle microcirculatory changes that are not visible to the naked eye. Case Axon flare response was elicited by 0.01 mL intradermal (i.d.) histamine introduced to the left forehead, trigeminal nerve ophthalmic branch (V1) skin area. Skin microvascular blood flow data were recorded using a LASCA real-time microcirculation imaging system. In the healthy control, prick stimulus slightly elevated focal skin microcirculation only at the stimulated focal area. However, in our patient with chronic migraine, the unilateral prick stimulation transiently (over 10 to 12 seconds) increased ipsilateral skin microcirculation at all 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve, with a slight expansion across the midline. Left V1 stimulation by i.d. histamine induced not only prominent but also long-lasting (10 to 15 minutes of recording time) axon flare response at the ipsilateral V1, V2, and V3 areas, with an expansion to the contralateral V1 area and without any report of allodynia or hyperalgesia. The treatment decreased axon flare characteristics probably by inhibiting neurogenic inflammation. Discussion The clinical characteristics and individual response to treatment vary widely across patients with pain. Here, we demonstrated the presence of transient spread of increased microcirculation at the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve, and also across the midline after prick stimulus, whereas a more prominent, widespread, and long-lasting histamine-induced axon flare response occurred in a rare subclass of patient who had chronic migraine with autonomic symptoms. The modulatory effect of the pharmacological intervention has also been objectively quantified by LASCA.