Outcomes and success of amniotic membrane transplantation for the treatment of corneal diseases#


DİKMETAŞ Ö., Kapucu Y., ÇANKAYA A. B., KOCABEYOĞLU S.

Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15569527.2023.2275018
  • Journal Name: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Amniotic membrane, bullous keratopathy, cornea, graft-versus-host disease, neurotrophic keratopathy
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Purpose: The amniotic membrane (AM), the inner layer of the placenta, is a semitransparent, avascular, and thin tissue that is useful due to its structure. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) avoids the need for keratoplasty to prevent corneal perforating. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the visual (gain of or no change in visual acuity) and corneal outcomes (closure of the ulcer or corneal healing) of AMT in patients with ocular surface diseases. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case control study (success or failure of the surgery). It was undertaken at a single academic center. The study cohort consisted of subjects with ocular surface diseases. Patients were treated with AMT for refractory ocular surface diseases. They were divided into five subgroups according to the preoperative diagnosis. The technique of AMT used was the onlay method with two layers of AM. Primary outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the number of AMTs, and reepithelization of the corneal epithelium at the end of the treatment. Two weeks to six months were given to consider epithelial closure. Treatment success was defined as corneal healing within 6 months. Results: A total of the 66 eyes of 66 patients (39 male/27 female) with a mean age of 44 ± 23 years (range 1–88 years) were included in the study. A single AMT procedure achieved epithelial closure in 74.2% (n = 49) of the eyes (53% in <15 days, 19.6% in 15–30 days, and 1.5% in 1–6 months). The fastest reepithelization occurred in neurotrophic keratopathy, 76.9% of which cases occurred within 15 days after the AMT procedure. Treatment failure was observed in five patients (7.5%), four with keratitis and one with neurotrophic keratopathy. The highest closure rates were found in persistent epithelial defects, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and bullous keratopathy, although there was no statistically significant difference in BCVA. Pairwise comparisons were made of neurotropic keratoplasty versus bullous keratopathy (P = 0.025), neurotrophic keratopathy versus keratitis (P = 0.004), GVHD versus keratitis (P = 0.003), and lastly, GvHD versus bullous keratopathy (P = 0.023). Conclusions: AMT is a safe, valuable, and fast treatment technique to treat corneal epithelial defects stemming from different etiologies that are refractory to conventional treatment.