The main aim of the study is to investigate how the opportunity to learn, school climate, and school resources, when they are considered as variables together, affect the Math achievement of resilient Turkish students by using a Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM). Recent studies state that resilient students are achieving higher than their peers who have low socio-economic status. Therefore, it is important to find out the variables which affect the achievement of students who have a low socio-economic status. In the study, the main characteristics of resilient students are revealed through a literature review in this field; and a model is formed through the factors which affect achievement levels generally at both school and student levels. The study group includes 317 students who are defined as resilient in the PISA 2012 Turkish sample. According to the results of the study, at student level, the variables of Experience with Applied Mathematical Tasks and Mathematics Teaching; and at school level, the variables of Quality of School Educational Resources and Student-related Factors Affecting School Climate are found to be effective in the mean math achievement of resilient students. When the models are examined, in the one including both school and student level variables together, it is determined that the variables of Experience with Applied Mathematical Tasks, Quality of School Educational Resources and Student-related Factors Affecting School Climate explain 44% of the variability between schools. Besides, it can be seen in the study that the variables at student level have partially meaningful effects.