The paper describes desalination by membrane distillation (MD) using ion-track membranes. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) ion-track membranes were hydrophobized by the immobilization of hydrophobic vinyl-silica nanoparticles (Si NPs). Si NPs were synthesized by the sol-gel method, and the addition of the surfactant led to the formation of NPs with average size of 40 nm. The thermal initiator fixed to the surface of membranes allowed attachment of triethoxyvinyl silane Si NPs at the membrane surface. To further increase hydrophobicity, ethoxy groups were fluorinated. The morphology and chemical structure of prepared membranes were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XPS spectroscopy, and a gas permeability test. Hydrophobic properties were evaluated by contact angle (CA) and liquid entry pressure (LEP) measurements. Membranes with CA 125-143 degrees were tested in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) of 30 g/L saline solution. Membranes showed water fluxes from 2.2 to 15.4 kg/(m(2)center dot h) with salt rejection values of 93-99%.