Objective: To evaluate early postoperative results of patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels who underwent surgery due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patients and Methods: 64 patients who had lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), normal digital rectal examinations (DRE), elevated PSA levels and prostate biopsies reported as being benign pathologically in specimens obtained by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies, were included in the study. Patients were assessed in accordance with PSA density, free/total PSA ratio and uroflowmetric studies. Patients had no cancer pre- and postoperatively (according to operative specimens). Six months postoperatively, 32 patients were accepted for re-evaluation for all PSA parameters, routine tests and prostatic biopsies. Results: 64 patients with a mean age of 66.8 (SD 6.72) were included in the study. Total PSA average value was 14.38 (SD 7.49) ng/ml. Free PSA average value was 2.11 (SID 1.43) ng/ml. Average PSA density and free/total PSA ratio were 25.19 SD (14.12) ng/ml/cm(3) and 14.53% (SD 5.35%) respectively. 56 patients had BPH, 7 had chronic prostatitis and 1 had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) preoperatively with biopsies. Re-biopsy of the patient with PIN was reported as BPH. In pathologic examination with resected tissues postoperatively, 49 patients had BPH, 14 had chronic prostatitis and 1 had PIN. In the sixth month, average values of free/total PSA were 0.45 (SD 0.26) and 3.71 (SD 4.96) ng/ml respectively. Average PSA density and free/total PSA ratio were 12.41 (SD 13.8) ng/ml/cm(3) and 19.59% (SD 10.33%) respectively. There were significant decreases in PSA densities (p < 0.001) and increases in free/total PSA ratios (p = 0.004). Seven patients still had elevated PSA levels 6 months postoperatively. Three of 7 patients were reported as chronic prostatitis. One of them was indicated as prostatic carcinoma who was reported as PIN preoperatively. All other patients were stated as BPH at re-biopsies. Conclusion: If pretreatment biopsies are negative and operative specimens are also benign in patients with high PSA values, these patients can be followed up like usual BPH patients, but long-term follow-up is still unclear. Copyright (C) 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.