Assessment of groundwater quality using multivariate statistical techniques in the Azmak Spring Zone, Mugla, Turkey


ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.77, no.22, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 77 Issue: 22
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-018-7937-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


About 150 coastal spring outlets discharging from a karstified carbonate rock aquifer constitute the Azmak streamflow which is slightly brackish with 3000mg/l of total dissolved solids. In this study, multivariate statistical methods were applied including the use of factor analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis to evaluate groundwater quality of Azmak Spring Zone using eight variables (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, EC25 and B) at 19 water points sampled in the dry and wet seasons. Hydrochemical analysis results revealed that for majority of the sampling points, the abundance of cations and anions were ordered as Na+K>Mg>Ca and Cl>SO4>HCO3+CO3, respectively. Factor analysis results indicated that three factors explain 98% and 91% of the total variance in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Factor 1 was found to be associated with the seawater, factor 2 indicated the effect of fresh water and factor 3 was defined to reflect the effect of seasonal fresh surface water contribution. Cluster analysis results indicated that two main groups and four subgroups could be defined with respect to the ratio of the seawater contribution. Cluster A (A1 and A2) represents the waters affected by seawater while waters less affected by the seawater intrusion are grouped in cluster B (B1 and B2).