Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Intracellular Ca2+ release plays an important role in the regulation of muscle contraction. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release is controlled by dedicated molecular machinery, composed of a complex of cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2s). Acquired and genetic defects in this complex result in a spectrum of abnormal Ca2+ release phenotypes in heart. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a leading cause for mortality of diabetic individuals due, in part, to a specific cardiomyopathy, and to altered vascular reactivity. Cardiovascular complications result from multiple parameters, including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, fibrosis, and mitochondrial uncoupling. In diabetic subjects, oxidative stress arises from an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and capability of the system to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. To date, the etiology underlying diabetes-induced reductions in myocyte and cardiac contractility remains incompletely understood. However, numerous studies, including work from our laboratory, suggest that these defects stem in part from perturbation in intracellular Ca2+ cycling. Since the RyR2s are one of the well-characterized redox-sensitive ion channels in heart, this article summarizes recent findings on redox regulation of cardiac Ca2+ transport systems and discusses contributions of redox regulation to pathological cardiac function in diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1847-1861.