Ligneous periodontitis (LP) is a rare periodontal disease in which plasminogen deficiency and fibrin deposition both play a part, resulting in characteristic gingival enlargement and periodontal breakdown. Recent data suggest that oxidant/antioxidant changes are significant in the pathology of oral diseases. This study examines the gingival histopathology in 2 cases with LP. To examine the antioxidant (AO) status, the activity of the major AOs glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a product of lipid peroxidation, were measured and compared with healthy control subjects. The histopathologic examination of the gingiva revealed subepithelial fibrin accumulation and irregular extensive downward proliferation of the epithelium. Biochemical analysis showed that the CAT, GST, and MDA levels were higher in LP patients than in the control subjects, and the GSH level was lower. Our preliminary findings show that in LP, the AO capacity of the gingiva changes or decreases and lipid peroxidation increases, which suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathology of the periodontal breakdown observed in this disease.